What to Know About Industrial Roofs


In the realm of industrial construction, few elements are as vital as the roof. It’s the guardian that shields factories, warehouses, and manufacturing facilities from the elements, while also playing a pivotal role in structural integrity and energy efficiency. Join us as we delve into the intricacies of industrial roofs, drawing on our personal experiences and expertise. From materials to occupancy considerations and seismic upgrades, we unravel the complexities to help you make informed decisions for your industrial roofing needs.

Wood vs Metal Roofs

When it comes to industrial roofs, the choice between wood and metal is often a pivotal decision that can significantly impact the performance, longevity, and aesthetics of the structure. Let’s delve deeper into the pros and cons of each material to help you make an informed decision.

Wooden Roofs


  • Versatility: Wood can be shaped and customized to accommodate various architectural styles and design preferences, making it a preferred choice for industrial buildings seeking a rustic or natural aesthetic.
  • Affordability: In many cases, wood is more affordable upfront compared to metal roofing materials. Its widespread availability and relatively simple installation process can help reduce construction costs, making it an attractive option for budget-conscious projects.
  • Insulation Properties: Wood offers excellent thermal insulation, helping to regulate indoor temperatures and reduce energy consumption.


  • Susceptibility to Moisture: One of the primary challenges associated with wooden roofs is their susceptibility to moisture absorption, which can lead to rot, decay, and structural instability over time.
  • Vulnerability to Pests: Wood is also susceptible to infestation by pests such as termites, ants, and wood-boring insects, especially in humid or damp environments. Pest damage can weaken the roof structure and compromise its load-bearing capacity, posing safety risks and requiring proactive pest management strategies.
  • Fire Resistance: To mitigate the risk of fire-related incidents, wooden roofs must be treated with fire-retardant coatings or integrated with fire suppression systems, adding to the overall project costs and maintenance requirements.
Metal Roofs


  • Durability and Longevity: Metal roofs are renowned for their exceptional durability and longevity, outlasting many other roofing materials with minimal maintenance requirements.
  • Weather Resistance: Metal roofs provide robust protection against adverse weather conditions, including rain, snow, hail, and high winds. Their interlocking panels or standing seam configurations create a watertight barrier that prevents water infiltration and reduces the risk of leaks, mold, and water damage within the industrial facility.
  • Fire Protection: Unlike wood, metal is inherently fire-resistant, making it an ideal choice for industrial buildings where fire safety is a paramount concern.


  • Initial Cost: While metal roofs offer exceptional long-term value, they often entail a higher initial cost compared to wood or other roofing materials. The premium price reflects the superior durability, longevity, and performance of metal roofing systems, which can translate into significant cost savings over the lifespan of the structure.
  • Thermal Conductivity: Without adequate insulation, metal roofs may contribute to heat gain in warmer climates or heat loss in colder climates, potentially impacting indoor comfort levels and energy efficiency.
  • Aesthetic Limitations: While metal roofs offer versatility in terms of color, profile, and finish options, some industrial facilities may prefer the natural warmth and texture of wood for architectural cohesion or branding purposes.

Occupancy Discussions and Codes

In the realm of industrial construction, understanding the intricacies of occupancy discussions and adhering to relevant building codes are paramount for ensuring the safety, functionality, and regulatory compliance of industrial roof structures. Let’s explore the key considerations and codes that influence occupancy discussions in industrial settings.

Occupancy Type

Industrial facilities encompass a wide range of operations, each with distinct occupancy characteristics and requirements. Understanding the specific occupancy type enables stakeholders to tailor roofing solutions to accommodate equipment, machinery, storage racks, or specialized processes within the industrial facility.

Occupant Load

The occupant load, or the number of individuals expected to occupy the industrial space, influences roof design considerations such as structural capacity, access points, egress routes, and safety features. Large-scale industrial operations may require robust roofing systems capable of supporting heavy equipment, machinery, or personnel access for maintenance and inspections.

Fire Protection Measures

Industrial buildings are subject to stringent fire protection requirements aimed at mitigating the risk of fire-related incidents and safeguarding personnel, assets, and neighboring properties. Incorporating fire-resistant roofing materials, implementing fire suppression systems, and maintaining clear access to fire exits and firefighting equipment are essential considerations in industrial roof design.

Seismic Upgrades

In regions prone to seismic activity, seismic upgrades, which entail enhancing the structural resilience of industrial roofs to withstand seismic forces, are essential measures for mitigating seismic risks and ensuring the long-term safety and stability of industrial facilities. When an engineer or general contractor assists in roof upgrades or additions, they will evaluate several factors. They include, but are not limited to, the following:

Seismic Risks

Seismic Hazard Assessment

By analyzing historical seismic data, ground motion characteristics, and site-specific factors such as soil type and proximity to fault lines, engineers can quantify the seismic risks and determine the level of retrofitting required to enhance roof resilience.

Building Vulnerability Analysis

A thorough vulnerability analysis evaluates the structural integrity of the roof system, identifying potential weaknesses, deficiencies, or areas of concern that may compromise its ability to withstand seismic loads. This analysis serves as the foundation for developing targeted retrofitting strategies to address identified vulnerabilities effectively.

Tailored Solutions

Bracing and Reinforcement

Bracing elements, such as steel braces or tension rods, are strategically placed to resist lateral movement and distribute seismic forces throughout the roof system. Reinforcement measures, such as strengthening connections, adding supplementary framing members, or applying structural overlays, further fortify the roof against seismic loading.

Isolation and Damping Systems

Isolation divides the roof from the building’s foundation, reducing the transfer of seismic energy and minimizing structural damage. Damping systems dissipate seismic energy and mitigate roof oscillations, enhancing overall seismic performance and occupant safety.


Engineering Expertise

Through advanced modeling, analysis, and simulation tools, engineers develop customized retrofit solutions optimized for the specific seismic risks and structural characteristics of each industrial facility.

Quality Assurance

By employing certified construction professionals and utilizing high-quality materials and construction techniques, the build team can deliver seismic retrofit solutions that can withstand the rigors of seismic events.

Solar Panels and Roofing Codes

The integration of solar panels represents a sustainable and cost-effective solution for energy generation and environmental stewardship. Furthermore, more and more cities are incorporating renewable energy requirements on new construction. Before adding panels to just any roof, the build team needs to take careful consideration of roofing codes, structural implications, and regulatory compliance to ensure safety, functionality, and adherence to industry standards.

Load-Bearing Capacity

Industrial roofs must possess sufficient load-bearing capacity to support the additional weight of solar panels, mounting equipment, and related infrastructure. Compliance with roofing codes and standards, such as the International Building Code (IBC) and local building ordinances, ensures that solar installations do not exceed the roof’s structural capacity and compromise its integrity.

Wind Uplift Resistance

Solar panels are subjected to wind loads that exert uplift forces on the roof surface, posing challenges for secure attachment and resistance to wind-induced uplift. Roofing codes and standards prescribe minimum design requirements for wind uplift resistance, including appropriate fastening methods, roof membrane attachment, and ballast systems to prevent panel displacement or damage during high winds.

Electrical Wiring and Components

Solar panel installations involve electrical wiring, inverters, combiner boxes, and other components that must comply with electrical codes and safety regulations to prevent hazards such as electrical shock, fire, or equipment malfunction. Ensure that solar electrical systems adhere to the National Electrical Code (NEC) and local electrical standards, incorporating proper grounding, overcurrent protection, and arc fault detection measures to enhance safety and reliability.

Utility Interconnection Requirements

Connecting to the utility grid requires compliance with interconnection requirements established by utility companies and regulatory agencies to ensure seamless integration, grid stability, and compliance with energy regulations. When adding solar panels, whether through new construction or retrofitting, the building’s overall power capabilities must also meet the system and the city’s requirements.

Building Permits

Installation typically requires building permits to verify compliance with zoning regulations, setback requirements, height restrictions, and aesthetic guidelines.

Final Thoughts

In the domain of commercial construction, the significance of industrial roofs cannot be overstated; it embodies resilience, functionality, and innovation. Working with a reputable general contractor and engineer is essential for ensuring that every aspect of your industrial roofing project is meticulously planned and executed. By collaborating with Perlo’s team of experienced professionals, we can help guide you through the many considerations and requirements, making the experience as seamless as possible.

To find out more about how our teams can help, visit our contact page here